Technology

why sustainability does not should depend upon high-tech options

It’s a preferred concept that the trail to sustainability lies in high-tech options. By making on a regular basis objects like automobiles electrical, and putting in sensible techniques to observe and cut back vitality use, it appears we’ll nonetheless be capable to benefit from the comforts to which we’ve change into accustomed whereas doing our bit for the planet – a state generally known as “inexperienced progress”.

However the dangers of this strategy have gotten ever clearer. Many fashionable applied sciences use supplies like copper, cobalt, lithium and uncommon earth parts. These metals are in units like cell telephones, televisions and motors. Not solely is their provide finite, however giant quantities of vitality are required for his or her extraction and processing – producing vital emissions.

Plus, many of those units are inherently tough to recycle. It’s because to make them, advanced mixes of supplies are created, typically in very small portions. It’s very costly to gather and separate them for recycling.

Amongst others, these limitations have led some to query the high-tech route our society is taking – and to develop a burgeoning curiosity in low-tech options. These options prioritise simplicity and sturdiness, native manufacture, in addition to conventional or historic strategies.

What’s extra, low-tech options typically deal with conviviality. This includes encouraging social connections, for instance via communal music or dance, slightly than fostering the hyper-individualism inspired by resource-hungry digital units.

“Low-tech” doesn’t imply a return to medieval methods of dwelling. Nevertheless it does demand extra discernment in our selection of applied sciences – and consideration of their disadvantages.

Origins of low-tech

Critics have proclaimed the downsides of extreme expertise for hundreds of years, from nineteenth century Luddites to twentieth century writers like Jacques Ellul and Lewis Mumford. Nevertheless it was the western vitality disaster within the Seventies that actually popularised these concepts.

A person rides a cargo bike on a city road
Low-tech emphasises effectivity and ease.
CityHarvestNY/Wikimedia

British economist E.F. Schumacher’s 1973 ebook Small is Lovely introduced a strong critique of contemporary expertise and its depletion of sources like fossil fuels. As an alternative, Schumacher advocated for simplicity: domestically inexpensive, environment friendly applied sciences (which he termed “intermediate” applied sciences), like small hydroelectricity units utilized by rural communities.

Schumacher’s mantle has been taken up by a rising motion calling itself “low-tech”. Belgian author Kris de Dekker’s on-line Low-Tech Journal has been cataloguing low-tech options, reminiscent of windmills that use friction to warmth buildings, since 2007. Specifically, the journal explores out of date applied sciences that might nonetheless contribute to a sustainable society: like fruit partitions used within the 1600s to create native, heat microclimates for rising Mediterranean fruits.




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Within the US, architect and tutorial Julia Watson’s ebook Lo-TEK (the place TEK stands for Conventional Ecological Data) explores conventional applied sciences from utilizing reeds as constructing supplies to creating wetlands for wastewater therapy.

And in France, engineer Philippe Bihouix’s realisation of expertise’s drain on sources led to his prize-winning ebook The Age of Low Tech. First printed in 2014, it describes what life in a low-tech world could be like, together with radically reducing consumption.

An infographic showing principles of low-tech
Rules of low-tech embrace effectivity, sturdiness and accessibility.
Arthur Keller and Emilien Bournigal/Wikimedia

Bihouix presents seven “commandments” of the low-tech motion. Amongst others, these cowl the necessity to steadiness a expertise’s efficiency with its environmental impression, being cautious of automation (particularly the place employment is changed by elevated vitality use), and decreasing our calls for on nature.

However the first precept of low-tech is its emphasis on sobriety: avoiding extreme or frivolous consumption, and being happy by much less lovely fashions with decrease efficiency. As Bihouix writes:

A discount in consumption may make it shortly attainable to rediscover the numerous easy, poetic, philosophical joys of a revitalised pure world … whereas the discount in stress and dealing time would make it attainable to develop many cultural or leisure actions reminiscent of exhibits, theatre, music, gardening or yoga.

Historical options

Crucially, we are able to apply low-tech ideas to our every day lives now. For instance, we are able to simply cut back vitality demand from heating by utilizing heat garments and blankets. Meals, if it’s packaged in any respect, could be purchased and saved in reusable, recyclable packaging like glass.

Structure gives a number of alternatives for low-tech approaches, particularly if we study from historical past. Utilizing historic windcatcher towers designed to permit exterior cool air to circulation via rooms lets buildings be cooled utilizing a lot much less vitality than air-con. And storing warmth in stones, utilized by the Romans for underfloor heating, is being thought-about in the present day as a way of coping with the intermittency of renewable vitality.

Windcatcher towers against blue sky
Windcatchers in Yazd, Iran, cool buildings utilizing wind.
Ms96/Wikimedia

Design and manufacture for sustainability emphasises decreasing waste, typically via avoiding mixing and contaminating supplies. Easy supplies like plain carbon steels, joined utilizing detachable fasteners, are simple to recycle and domestically restore. Buses, trains and farm equipment utilizing these steels, for instance, could be far more readily refurbished or recycled than fashionable automobiles stuffed with microelectronics and manufactured from refined alloys.

In some locations, the ideas of low tech are already influencing city design and industrial coverage. Examples embrace “15-minute cities” the place outlets and different facilities are simply accessible to residents, utilizing cargo bikes as a substitute of automobiles or vans for deliveries, and inspiring repairable merchandise via right-to-repair laws within the EU and US.




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Parklets, traffic-free zones and out of doors consuming: how COVID is reworking our cities


In the meantime, in Japan, there’s rising curiosity within the reuse and recycling practices of the Edo interval. From 1603 to 1867, the nation was successfully closed to the surface world, with very restricted entry to uncooked supplies. Due to this fact, intensive reuse and restore – even of issues reminiscent of damaged pottery or utensils with holes that we’d now regard as waste – grew to become a lifestyle. Specialist repairers would mend or recycle every part from paper lanterns and books to sneakers, pans, umbrellas and candles.

By following examples like these, we are able to make discerning technological selections a central a part of our seek for sustainable methods of dwelling.

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